Editorial Introduction to Volume 12 on

Two articles explaining and demonstrating the Compram Methodology.


Dorien DeTombe

Cor van Dijkum 

Chief Editors

Complexity is a challenge for the sciences. In the natural sciences research on phenomena of complex systems is blossoming and also in social sciences complexity is becoming a serious topic. For the social sciences, dealing with social phenomena and human beings that are trying to understand complexity in social systems, the question is not only to do research about societal complexity but also how to do research that generates valid knowledge to handle societal complexity. It is clear that there are different scientific disciplines necessary to grasp societal complexity, as well from the social sciences as from the natural sciences. So the question also is how to organize the research in an interdisciplinary way. That this is a challenge for methodology and that is precisely the approach that is developed and laid down in a number of articles and books by Dorien DeTombe. That the Journal dedicates this issue to the Compram methodology by publishing two articles that give samples of what the methodology is and how it can be applied to real life cases is therefore natural. 


The first article is ‘War time rape as a complex societal problem handled by the Compram methodology’ of Dorien DeTombe focuses on one of the complex issues that are a result of war.


DeTombe argues that war is a very negative way to handle a complex societal problem; war only increases the trouble and is never the solution of a complex societal problem. War causes much anxiety, fair, disruption, destroying and deaths.

A point that is often less emphasized in war is rape during and after war time.

Rape of women and children and sometimes also of men. War time rape is of all times, from the time of the soldiers of Alexander the Great in 330 BC till recent wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina in the end of the 20th century.  In this article DeTombe asks for attention, awareness, of this aspect of fighting and pleats for putting this issue on the political agenda in order to mitigate future war time rape. How to do this will not be easy. War time rape can be considered as a complex societal problem and should be approached by the scientifically based methodology Compram of DeTombe (1994).


The second article in this volume is of Dorien DeTombe and Cor van Dijkum

Sustainable energy as a complex societal problem using the Compram Methodology’.


This article is about electricity. There is a lack of electricity in India. In India a large part of the population do not have a proper access to electricity and gas, neither for cooling or heating, cooking, cleaning, light or machinery. Special outside the large cities like Calcutta, Mumbai or Delhi the situation is often without the technological benefits of modern times.


India is a very large sub-continent which seems to have not much fossil resources, no coal, nor oil. India is dependent on buying natural resources from other countries.


One of the resources its buys is electricity. There for large pipelines of thousands of kilometers has to be build. This pipelines has to be protected for safety because they are through countries that are hostile towards the State of India.


The emphasis of the article of DeTombe and Van Dijkum is on electricity as a complex societal problem. To find changes here on the issue of electricity the methodology Compram should be used so that experts and actors together can try to find better ways to handle this problems


In both articles the Compram methodology is suggested the scientific methodology of handling these kinds of societal complex problems. The Compram methodology will be explained shortly.


We are looking forward to the reactions on both articles.


Amsterdam, 2014